Finance, Credit, Investments – Economical Categories

Scientific works within the theories of price range and credit score, in step with the specification of the studies object, are characterized to be many-sided and lots of-leveled.
The definition of totality of the least expensive relations shaped inside the method of formation, distribution and utilization of finances, as money resources is broadly unfold. For instance, in “the general concept of price range” there are two definitions of finances: trading scheme
1) “…Finances replicate low-budget family members, formation of the price range of cash assets, inside the manner of distribution and redistribution of countrywide receipts in keeping with the distribution and usage”. This definition is given especially to the conditions of Capitalism, whilst coins-commodity family members benefit common person;
2) “Finances represent the formation of centralized advert decentralized cash resources, cost-efficient relations fantastically with the distribution and usage, which serve for achievement of the nation capabilities and duties and also provision of the situations of the widened similarly production”. This definition is delivered without showing the environment of its action. We share in part such explanation of price range and assume expedient to make a few specification.
First, finances overcome the limits of distribution and redistribution provider of the countrywide profits, even though it is a simple basis of price range. Also, formation and usage of the depreciation fund that’s the a part of financial domain, belongs now not to the distribution and redistribution of the countrywide earnings (of newly fashioned cost during a 12 months), but to the distribution of already evolved fee.
This contemporary first seems to be a part of fee of principal commercial finances, later it is moved to the price rate of a equipped product (that is to the fee too) and after its realization, and it is set the melancholy fund. Its supply is taken into consideration before hand as a despair type within the consistence of the ready merchandise cost fee.
Second, primary purpose of price range is a great deal wider then “fulfillment of the state features and duties and provision of conditions for the widened similarly manufacturing”. Finances exist at the nation stage and also at the manufactures and branches’ degree too, and in such conditions, when the most a part of the manufactures aren’t kingdom.
V. M. Rodionova has a extraordinary position about this subject: “actual formation of the economic sources starts on the level of distribution, when the fee is found out and concrete low cost varieties of the found out price are separated from the consistence of the income”. V. M. Rodionova makes an accessory of price range, as dispensing relations, whilst D. S. Moliakov underlines business foundation of price range. Though both of them give quite substantiate discussion of price range, as a gadget of formation, distribution and utilization of the budget of money sources, that comes out of the subsequent definition of the price range: “monetary coins relations, which paperwork in the technique of distribution and redistribution of the partial fee of the national wealth and overall social product, is related with the subjects of the financial system and formation and usage of the state cash incomes and savings in the widened in addition production, in the cloth stimulation of the employees for delight of the society social and different requests”.
In the manuals of the political financial system we meet with the subsequent definitions of budget:
“Finances of the socialistic country represent low-cost (cash) members of the family, with the help of which, in the manner of planned distribution of the incomes and savings the finances of cash assets of the country and socialistic manufactures are fashioned for making certain the boom of the manufacturing, growing the material and cultural stage of the people and for fulfilling different popular society requests”.
“The device of creation and utilization of necessary finances of cash sources for guarantying socialistic widened in addition production represent exactly the price range of the socialistic society. And the totality of low-cost members of the family arisen among state, manufactures and companies, branches, areas and separate citizen according to the motion of cash price range make monetary relations”.
As we’ve visible, definitions of price range made through financiers and political economists do not differ significantly.
In every discussed position there are:
1) expression of essence and phenomenon within the definition of finances;
2) the definition of budget, as the device of the creation and utilization of price range of cash assets on the level of phenomenon.
3) Distribution of budget as social product and the value of national income, definition of the distributions planned character, essential desires of the financial system and low-priced members of the family, for servicing of which it’s far used.
If refuse the preposition “socialistic” in the definition of budget, we may additionally say, that it still continues reality. We meet with such traditional definitions of price range, without an adjective “socialistic”, in the present day reasonably-priced literature. We might also supply such an elucidation: “finances represent cash resources of manufacturing and usage, additionally cash relations regarded within the method of dispensing values of formed cost effective product and national wealth for formation and in addition production of the coins incomes and financial savings of the competitively priced topics and state, rewarding of the people and pleasure of the social requests”. On this elucidation of price range like D. S. Moliakov and V. M. Rodionov’s definitions, following the traditional inheritance, we meet with the widening of the financial foundation. They problem “distribution and redistribution of the price of created low cost product, additionally the partial distribution of the price of country wide wealth”. This cutting-edge could be very actual, pretty to the procedure of privatization and the transition to privacy and is periodically used in exercise in exclusive nations, as an instance, Great Britain and France.
“Finances – are cash assets, financial resources, their advent and motion, distribution and redistribution, usage, additionally most economical relations, which are conditioned by way of intercalculations between the low-cost subjects, motion of cash resources, cash stream and utilization”.
“Finances are the device of competitively priced members of the family, which might be related with company advent, distribution and utilization of economic assets”.
We meet with surely innovational definitions of price range in Z. Body and R. Merton’s basis manuals. “Finance – it is the technological know-how approximately how the human beings lead spending `the deficit coins resources and earning inside the specific period of time. The financial decisions are characterised via the prices and incomes that are 1) separated in time, and a pair of) frequently, it is not possible to take them under consideration beforehand neither with the aid of individuals who get choices nor some other person” . “Financial theory consists of numbers of the conceptions… Which learns systematically the topics of distribution of the cash resources distinctly to the time aspect; it additionally considers quantitative fashions, with the assist of which the estimation, setting into practice and realization of the alternative versions of every economic selections take area” .
These simple conceptions and quantitative fashions are used at every degree of having economic selections, however within the trendy definition of price range, we meet with the subsequent doctrine of the economic foundation: primary function of the finances is in the pride of the people’s requests; the subjects of within your budget activities of any type (firms, additionally nation organs of each degree) are directed in the direction of enjoyable this primary feature.
For the desires of our monograph, it’s miles crucial to evaluate famous definitions approximately budget, credit score and funding, to decide how and how much it’s far viable to combine the finances, investments and credit score into the one general component.
Some researcher aspect that credit is the consisting a part of finances, if it’s miles mentioned from the position of essence and category. The different, more severa group proves, that a cost-effective class of credit exists parallel to the not pricey category of price range, with the aid of which it underlines impossibility of the credit’s lifestyles within the consistence of finances.
N. K. Kuchukova underlined the independence of the category of credit and notes that it is most effective its “function characteristic the turned movement of the cost, which is not related with transmission of the loan possibilities together with the owners’ rights”.
N. D. Barkovski replies that functioning of money created an economical foundation for apportioning budget and credit as an independent category and gave upward push to the credit score and financial relations. He noticed the Gnoseological roots of technology in cash and credit, because the science about budget has business with the research of such low cost relations, which lean upon coins flow and credit.
Let’s talk the most spread definitions of credit score. In the contemporary publications credit appeared to be “luckier”, then finances. For instance, we meet with the following definition of credit score within the finance-reasonably-priced dictionary: “credit is the mortgage within the shape of cash and commodity with the situations of returning, commonly, by means of paying percentage. Credit represents a form of movement of the loan capital and expresses not pricey members of the family between the creditor and borrower”.
This is the conventional definition of credit. In the sooner dictionary of the economy we study: “credit score is the system of reasonably-priced family members, which is formed while the transmission of coins and cloth method into the temporal utilization, traditionally under the situations of returning and paying percentage”.
In the manual of the political economic system posted beneath reduction of V. A. Medvedev the subsequent definition is given: “credit score, as a cheap category, expresses the created members of the family among the society, labour collective and workers at some point of formation and utilization of the loan funds, underneath the phrases of paying gift and returning, at some stage in transmission of assets for the temporal usage and accumulation”.
Credit is mentioned inside the following way in the earlier schooling-methodological manuals of political economy: “credit is the machine of money family members, that’s created inside the system of the usage of and mobilization of briefly unfastened coins means of the nation finances, unions, manufactures, organizations and populace. Credit has an goal person. It is used for offering widened further manufacturing of the nation and other desires. Credit differs from finances via the returning man or woman, even as financing of manufactures and companies through the kingdom is fulfilled with out this circumstance”.
We meet with the following definition if “the route of economy”: “credit score is a cheap category, which represents family members, at the same time as the separate industrial groups or persons transmit money means to each-other for temporal utilization beneath the conditions of returning. Creation of credit score is conditioned with the aid of a historical technique of pleasurable the cost-effective and cash relations, the form of which is the money relation”.
Following scientists deliver barely exclusive definitions of credit score:
“Credit – is a mortgage in the shape of money or commodity, that is given to the borrower by way of a creditor below the conditions of returning and paying the proportion price via the borrower”.
Credit is giving the temporally free money sources or commodity as a debt for the defined phrases by way of the rate of constant percentage. Thus, a credit score is the mortgage in the shape of money or commodity. In the method of this mortgage’s motion, a definite members of the family are shaped between a creditor (the loan is given by a juridical of bodily person, who offers certain coins as a debt) and the debtor.
Combining every definition named above, we come to an concept, that credit is giving cash capital of commodity as a debt, for positive terms and fabric provision beneath the fee of company percent rate. It expresses exact cost-effective relations among the members of the process of capital formation. Necessity of the credit score family members is conditioned, from one facet, by using accumulating solid quantity of temporarily free money resources, and from the second aspect, lifestyles of requests of them.
Though, on the identical time we must distinguish  resembling ideas: mortgage and credit. Loan is characterised by:
o Here, the dialogue might also touch upon transmission of money and also matters form one side (loaner) to some other (borrower): a)under the proudly owning of the borrower and, at the same time, b) below the conditions of returning same quantity or equal quantity and great of the things;
o The loaning of cash might also bear no interest;
o Any man or woman may take part in it.
With the difference with loan, credit score, which is by some means a non-public event of the loan, represents:
o One aspect (loaner) offers to the second one (borrower) simplest money, and _ for temporal utilization;
o It might not undergo no interest (if the assignment does not foresee some thing);
o In it creditor isn’t any person, however a credit agency (at the first area, banks).
So, a credit is the bank credit. To our thoughts, it isn’t always correct to apply “credit score” and “mortgage” as the synonyms.
Banking crediting is the union of members of the family between bank (as a creditor) and its borrower. These members of the family touch upon:
a) Giving a sure sum of money to the borrower for definite cause (although, we meet with the so-called loose credits, ambitions and gadgets of crediting aren’t appointed within the project);
b) Its opportune returning;
c) Getting percent rate from the borrower for the use of the sources under his/her disposal.
The important foundation of the credit essence and its critical element is lifestyles of trust among the two sides (in Latin “credo”, from which comes the word “credit score”, way “believe”).
From the placement of stream of cash bureaucracy (in the abstraction, historical system of formation inexpensive relations and social price range and banking structures expressed by means of them) evaluating extraordinary definitions of price range and credit score, the ambiguity end appears: credit is the private occasion of budget. And actually, from the placement of movement of the cash paperwork, price range represent the system of formation and utilization of the finances of cash way. Very regularly such actions are fulfilled with out returning, however sometimes, it is possible to give loans from the budget for the investment initiatives of other desires. Also, when a manufacture or businesses use their cash price range and we mean the budget of business situation, such usage may be realized as inside the manufacture or organisation (there’s no concern approximately returning or now not returning of the utilization), so free of charge beneath conditions of returning. This modern is called commercial form because of transmitting the assets to others, but even in this occasion, it is the detail of monetary device of the manufacture and employer.
From the factor of coins manner movement, principal character of credit score is the method of formation and utilization of the budget of cash method under the conditions of returning and, in general, taking the value-percent. If gating the credit score fee does not take area (even within the super events), in keeping with the movement form, credit score becomes a non-public occasion of finances, as from the net monetary budget (therefore from the nation finances) the loans which bear no interests can be used. If gating credit cost takes region, through the appearance form, credit score is discussed to be economic amendment.
From the historic point of view, budget (specially in the sort of the nation finances) and credit score (starting with usury, later business and banking) have been growing otherwise for thinking about credit score to be the a part of budget. Though, from the genetic-historic point of view, previous loaners, earlier than giving mortgage, needed collecting the everlasting capital not returning, that is the internet financial basis. The banks analogously wanted attention of the essential very own capital for influxing the purchasers’ method and for buying higher percentage fee under the situations of returning. Herewith, precisely on the economic basis, in the kind of financial fund (which later partially will become loan fund) a part of the financial institution capital seems to be the reservation (coverage) a part of the fund, which with the aid of nature is economic and no longer loan. So however the crucial differences among finances and credit score form the genetic-historic point of view, credit appears to be fashioned from budget and constitute their modification.
From the vital function of expressing low in cost family members of price range and credit, we meet with cardinal differences between those two classes. Which broadly speaking expressed by way of the distinction of the movement forms however they may be returnable or now not. Finances explicit relations inside the aspects of distribution and redistribution of social product and a part of the national wealth. Credit expresses distribution of the ideal value only inside the segment of percent given for mortgage, while in step with the mortgage itself, a most effective a temporal distribution of money resources takes vicinity.
Herewith, there is lots of commonplace between the price range and credit as from the important factor of view, so in step with the form of movement. At the same time, there may be a full-size distinction between finances and credit score as within the essence, so within the shape too. According to this, there need to be a sort of normally in your price range category, which will take into account price range and credit score as a complete unity, and inside the bounds of this category itself, the separation of the particular essence of the price range and credit would take area.
Funding of the coins means is commonplace to the researched economical categories. It takes region in any separate device of finances and credit, which have been touched upon during the analyses of defining price range and credit. Word combination “investment of the coins assets (fund formation)” reflects and defines precisely essence and shape of within your means class of greater fashionable individual, the ones of finances and credit score classes. Though within the in good value texts and practice, it’s far very uncomfortable to apply a termini, which includes 3 phrases. Also, “unloading” with an records hardens significantly its influxing into the stream even in the situations of its strict substantiation and thoroughness.
In the discussing context we don’t forget:
1) huge and slim know-how of most economical category of the finances;
2) discussing price range in narrow understanding under popular conventional which means;
3) discussing budget, as investment of the cash approach, in wide understanding, which worries budget – in narrow that means and credit score – in whole meaning.
Termini “funding” and its equivalent “fund formation” are used by us as the practical structuring of coins means, that is primarily based on two poles – accumulation of cash assets (amassing) and its utilization for precise motive in the way of financing and crediting.
We have hooked up a new termini – “finance-funding sphere” (FIS). Analyses about interrelation of price range and credit score made via us supply us an possibility of proving, that in the given termini, the phrase “economic” is used with the meaning of investment cash assets, its functional structuring. In this procedure we consider on the equal time economic, credit and investments’ low-budget categories.
Let’s sum up center outcomes of discussing new idea – “finance-funding sphere” and speak its funding consisting elements.
The idea “investments” was delivered into the local reasonable technology from the West. In the Soviet within your means technology they for a long time used within the area “investments” the termini “capital placement”, which expressed the use of the economic elements within the sphere of actual commercial sports for the duration of cognizance of capital projects. From one look, this termini in its concept is identical to the “investments”, consequently it’s miles possible to apply them as synonyms. Though the termini “investments” and “making an investment” have the benefit closer to the termini “capital placement” from linguistic and philological points of view, due to the fact they may be expressed with one phrase. This is not simplest low-cost and secure inside the method of running with the termini “investment” itself, however also it offers an opportunity of termini formation. More concretely: “investment method”, “investment domain”, “finance-investment sphere” – these kind of termini are lots extra proper.
Changing local in your price range termini with foreign ones is purposeful, if it truly matters (via retaining parallel utilization of the native termini for the inheritance). Though we must not trade native low cost termini into foreign ones all together, whilst via ordinal conventional language clean to provide an explanation for personal and slender concrete tactics and elements get their personal termini. The “movement” of those termini is approved in the narrow expert bounds, but their “spitting out” into the good value technology may additionally turn within your budget language into the tangled slang.
Let’s speak termini – “funding” and “capital placement’s” utilization inside the cost-effective literature.
Investments are placement of finances into the main and movement capital for the purpose of getting earnings. “Investments in fabric assets – are the placements of price range into the cellular and actual estate (land, homes, furniture and so forth). Investments in economic assets are the placements of finances into the securities financial institution debts and different economic units”.
We don’t meet with the termini “investments” in the sooner inexpensive dictionary, but we meet the combined termini “funding policy” – the union of the economic selections, which assure major directions of the capital investments, the activities of their awareness inside the determinant suburbs, on which the attaining of planned charges of improvement of the society manufacturing is depended, balancing and effectiveness, getting increasingly manufacturing and income of the country wide profits for each lost Ruble”. For nowadays, in the maximum actual definitions, the capital investments are bounded simplest by means of economic means, while no longer most effective financial, but also the investment of natural, cloth-technical and informational sources takes vicinity. Labour sources take an real location within the funding technique. They themselves satisfy this or that investment technique.
A superb side of the discussed definitions is they connect funding policy and capital placements (investments):
– within your means development in line with the key guidelines to the concentration;
– supplying excessive prices of most economical increase;
– raising a cost-effective effectiveness, which is expressed:
a) through developing the throw off of the manufacturing and countrywide profits for every misplaced Ruble;
b) by means of gratifying the branch shape of the investments;
c) via enhancing their technological structure;
d) via optimization of their further production shape.
Compared with such definition of the investments (capital placement) the definition of investments inside the dictionary attaching the “Economics” seems to be unimproved: “investments – the expenses of gathering manufacturing and commercial manner and growing cloth reserve”. In this definition modern expenses (manufacturing charges) are mixed with the funding (capital) rate. Also, not the funding expenses however (although the investments are accompanied by using the appropriate costs) exactly advancing. It differs from the expenses with the aid of that the manner (means) are put by returning the advanced values, also, beneath the conditions of boom, to which the concept-superior capital is corresponding. The advancing may be found out in the money, herbal-cloth and informational forms.
Except the termini “investments”, there are  greater termini related with the funding. They are proven underneath.
“Human capital investment” – any pastime furnished for rising the workers labour productivity (within the manner of developing their qualification and growing their talents); on the costs of improving the people’ schooling, health and raising the mobility of the working forces”. It may be very useful to apply the stated termini, even though it wishes one correction: the human capital investments do not challenge only people, but also the servants, representatives of each form of labour.
“Investment commodity, capital goods – a capital.”
In the legit manuals of political economic system of the reformation time the capital investments are discussed as “costs for growing new major price range and widening, reconstruction and renewing the lively ones”. In this definition the investments (capital placements) during separation of the forms (sorts) of similarly production of the primary budget are bounded best via foremost price range (with out increases of the move funds and insurance reserves):
a) developing new ones;
b) widening;
c) reconstruction;
d) renewing.
Also, the idea of the economic accumulating appears, at the fees of widening of basic, move budget and also coverage reserves takes location”.
You’ll meet below the definitions of investments from “the route of financial system”: the investments are known as “placements of fund into the simple capital (primary way of production), reserves, additionally other competitively priced items and processes, which request lengthy-termed influxing of material and coins manner. “According to the division of capital into bodily and cash paperwork, the investments too have to be divided into cloth and coins investments”.
They apportion funding commodity, to which belong commercial and nonindustrial building objects, vehicles purposed for changing or widened technical park and the furniture, growing reserves and others.
“They name the overall investments of production an investment product, that’s directed in the direction of preserving and increasing the simple capital (simple method) and reserve. Total investments encompass two parts. One of them is called the depreciation; it represents vital funding assets for compensation of renewal until the extent of earlier than business usage, wearing out and repairing of the simple way. Second consisting part of the whole investments is represented by means of net investments – capital investments for the reason of increasing simple means”. Depreciation is not a repayment resource of carrying the basic budget out, but it’s miles the purposeful financial supply of such sources.
Human capital funding is “a selected sort of investments, normally in training and fitness safety”.
“Real investments are the investments in the low-budget branches and also, they’re sorts of good value activities, which offer influxing the increases of real capital, that is growing fabric values of the commercial approach”. We can believe such definition with one specification that fabric and nonmaterial values too belong to the actual capital (wealth), consequently technological know-how-researching experimental-construction outcomes, numerous records, schooling of he workers and others. Such service as enterprise of the excitable video games, also the service of redistribution social wealth from one private man or woman to every other (except charity).
“Financial investments constitute placement of finances into the stocks, duties, promissory notes, different securities and instruments. Such investments, of direction, do not provide will increase of the actual cloth capital, however they assist getting earnings, therefore at the charges of converting the path of the securities inside the time of hypothesis, or distinguishing the course in different locations of promote and purchasing”. We share completely such definition, as a result it follows that monetary investments (if it isn’t observed by means of actual investments as a result) do now not increase real fabric wealth and actual nonmaterial wealth. According to this context, the expression beneath is very crucial: “we should distinguish economic investments, which represent placement of the budget in the approaches of promoting and purchasing the securities for the motive of having profit and economic investments, which come to be coins and actual, moved to actual bodily capital.”
In the “cost-effective direction” quoted before lengthy and quick-termed investments are separated. Recognizing the lifestyles of the boundaries between them, the authors ascribe brief-termed investments to “one month or greater” investments. If we get such conditioned criteria, that we are able to name the investments which overcome the phrases of some months, long-termed ones, which may be very dubious and we do not believe it. A lengthy-termed character of the fund placement is a sizeable feature of the investments (quick-term doesn’t combine with the idea of investments). Principally, it might be higher to factor out quick compensative, middle termed compensative and lengthy-termed compensative investments:
– less then 6 months – brief compensative;
– from 6 months as much as the 12 months and a 1/2 – middle termed compensative;
– extra then the 12 months and a half of – long termed compensative.
We stopped on the definition of the investments in the capital paintings “cost-efficient direction” for the special purpose, as, in it the writer attempted to discuss the idea of investments systemically and quite completely, herewith the e-book is published simply now.
We’ll go back to the discussion the definition competitively priced class of “investments” in special guides inside the following chapter. The definitions given here are quite enough for having a perception of the level of lights up the given category inside the cost-effective literature.
What conclusions may be made in accordance the definition of the stated affordable category within the published works, besides the made notions and specs?
There is pretty deeply, concretely and punctiliously described the idea of “investments”, extraordinary definitions in the affordable literature; but more often than not in each works about the investments mentioned by using us until now, there isn’t opened the essence of investments as a cost-effective category. In every monograph , even supposing it has a identify investment, as an economical category , there may be given best the definition, concept of investments. But, as the Academician Vasil Chantladze explains, “a idea is a discussion, which proves some thing approximately the distinguishing characteristic of the researched item. A concept out of a whole lot critical function features represents best one, and critical in it’s miles most effective – definition”.
But the categories are a whole lot wider; it’s far “a key, the maximum fundamental idea of every technological know-how”. Economical categories theoretically constitute real, objectively existed effective family members. A class is the defining of events of existed characters, connections, family members of the goal international. Generally, any academic technique is fulfilled through the categories, which offer possibilities for dividing the strategies and events semantically, for expressing the definitions of a topic and recognize their particular peculiarities and within your means relations of a material international.
Our goal is exactly to confirm investments – as an economical category and also, as a financial category inside the slender information.
Here we follow for some other manual thesis made by way of the academician Vasil Chantladze: “every financial relation is a cheap one and each financial category is and cost-efficient one, but not every comparatively cheap relation and inexpensive class is economic relation and financial category”.
In the process of defining the investments, it is important to soak up thoughts the edges of sources, charges and incomes, because funding, from one aspect, is the end result of the manufacture’s activity, and, from some other one, – part of profits, which, in this situation, is not used for usage.
Another event: it is advisable to speak about investments in  factors: as a class of reserve and float, in order to mirror precisely the connection among “placement of budget” and “investments”.
As we have referred to above, now not long ago, inside the well-known Soviet literature the ideas of “the position of price range” and “investments” have been universal to be the synonyms and concerned to be funding of sources for similarly production of the primary price range and formation of the turnover finances. We meet with such know-how of the idea of “funding” (right here, they separate 3 forms of the investment charges: investments within the fundamental capital of investments, investments in the residence building and investments in the reserves) in the modern budget friendly guides and it’s miles primarily used at the macro level for the duration of a statistical examine of within your budget approaches. In this concrete occasion funding is the class of reserve.